Physics and materials challenges for lead-free solders

King-Ning Tu*, A. M. Gusak, M. Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

330 Scopus citations


The properties and reliability issues of lead-free solders were reviewed in the light of the electronic industry's move towards environment-friendly lead-free soldering. The microstructure changes of solder joints when subjected to chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal forces were studied. Spalling of intermetallic compound at interfaces in solder reactions was also studied. It was concluded that for certain high-end applications, the reliability of lead-containing solders cannot be relinquished.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1335-1353
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2003

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