Pacing real-time spatiotemporal control of cardiac alternans

Shien-Fong Lin, Stevan Dubljevic*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Scopus citations


This work demonstrates real-time control of cardiac alternans in the extracted rabbit heart and provides an analysis of the control methodology applied in the case of a one dimensional (1D) cable of cardiac cells. The real-time applied control is realized through feedback by proportional perturbation of a basic pacing cycle length (PCL). Measurements of the electric wave propagation are obtained by optical mapping of fluorescent dye from the surface of the heart and fed back in the custom designed software that provides the control input signal, which perturbs the basic pacing cycle length. In addition, a novel pacing protocol that avoids conduction block is applied. A complementary numerical analysis to the experiment is given by dimensionally reduced ionic model of the 1D cable of cardiac cells under the self-referencing feedback protocol, which is identical to the one applied in the experimental study. In addition, the amplitude of alternans linear parabolic PDE with gain full state feedback control associated with the ionic 1D cardiac cell cable model is explored and analyzed. The analysis of stabilization of the amplitude of alternans PDE is in an agreement with experimental results obtained and numerical results produced by the ionic 1D cable of cardiac cells model.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2007 American Control Conference, ACC
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2007
Event2007 American Control Conference, ACC - New York, NY, United States
Duration: 9 Jul 200713 Jul 2007

Publication series

NameProceedings of the American Control Conference
ISSN (Print)0743-1619


Conference2007 American Control Conference, ACC
CountryUnited States
CityNew York, NY


  • Action potential propagation
  • Cardiac alternans
  • Dissipative parabolic PDEs
  • Real time pacing protocols

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    Lin, S-F., & Dubljevic, S. (2007). Pacing real-time spatiotemporal control of cardiac alternans. In Proceedings of the 2007 American Control Conference, ACC (pp. 600-606). [4282654] (Proceedings of the American Control Conference).