A comparison between the fluorescence spectra of the Nd-doped vanadate crystals (Nd:YVO4, Nd:GdVO4, Nd:LuVO4) for the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition is studied. We numerically analyze the condition of gain-to-loss balance via an uncoated intracavity etalon to achieve the dual-wavelength operation. We further experimentally demonstrate the orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength laser with a single Nd:LuVO4 crystal. The simultaneous dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1085.7 nm in σ polarization and 1088.5 nm in π polarization is realized. At an incident pump power of 12 W, the average output power obtained at 1085.7 nm and 1088.5 nm is 0.4 W and 1.7 W, respectively.