Optimal Cell Load and Throughput in Green Small Cell Networks with Generalized Cell Association

Chun Hung Liu, Li-Chun Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


This paper thoroughly explores the fundamental interactions between cell association, cell load, and throughput in a green (energy-efficient) small cell network in which all base stations form a homogeneous Poisson point process (PPP) of intensity λB and all users form another independent PPP of intensity λU. Cell voidness, usually disregarded due to rarity in cellular network modeling, is first theoretically analyzed under generalized (channel-aware) cell association (GCA). We show that the void cell probability cannot be neglected any more since it is bounded above by exp(-λUB) that is typically not small in a small cell network. The accurate expression of the void cell probability for GCA is characterized and it is used to derive the average cell and user throughputs. We learn that cell association and cell load λUB significantly affect these two throughputs. According to the average cell and user throughputs, the green cell and user throughputs are defined respectively to reflect whether the energy of a base station is efficiently used to transmit information or not. In order to achieve satisfactory throughput with certain level of greenness, cell load should be properly determined. We present the theoretical solutions of the optimal cell loads that maximize the green cell and user throughputs, respectively, and verify their correctness by simulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7389350
Pages (from-to)1058-1072
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2016


  • cell association
  • cell load
  • Green communication
  • small cell networks
  • stochastic geometry
  • throughput

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