This paper reports an efficient fabrication of nanostructures on silicon substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Silicon wafer substrates in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate were machined by the femtosecond laser direct writing to achieve simultaneously in one-step the generation of grating-like nanostructures on the surface of the substrate and the formation of silver nanoparticles on the surface of the nanostructures via the laser-induced photoreduction effect. Parametric studies were conducted for the different concentrations of aqueous silver nitrate solutions and scanning speeds. The enhancement factor of the SERS is found to be higher than 10 9. The patterning technique provides an opportunity to incorporate the SERS capability in a functional microchip.