We have investigated a rapid, simple, and highly efficient on-line preconcentration method using in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for the analysis of abused drugs. Ketamine is an anesthetic that has been abused as a hallucinogen. We applied the sample sweeping technique first to ketamine and its major metabolite, norketamine, and separated the analytes with MEKC. Several of the sweeping MEKC parameters to effect successful separations, such as the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the injection time, and the applied voltage were optimized. The improvements in the number of theoretical plates under the different separation conditions are presented clearly in a three-dimensional representation. The limits of detection were 2.8, 3.4, and 3.3 ng/mL for ketamine, norketamine, and ketamine-D4, respectively. The enrichment factor for each compound was within the range of 540-800. Experimental results are in agreement with those of analysis conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Therefore, we believe that sweeping, combined with MEKC, represents a suitable complementary method to GC/MS for use in clinical and forensic analyses of ketamine and norketamine.
- Micellar electrokinetic chromatography
- On-line preconcentration