On gaze estimation using integral projection of eye images

Lan-Rong Dung*, Yu Cheng Lee, Yin Yi Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


This paper presents a gaze estimation algorithm using integral projection of eye images with advantage of low additional hardware requirement and low computational power. The algorithm needs only a webcam under nature light source and captured eye images in a non-intrusive way. Before integral projection, we used binarization process to eliminate the non-related image information to gaze position. Projected on binary eye images with projection adjustment method to avoid eye tilt makes projection error and defined the accurate integral range of eye ROI images to achieve robust gaze estimation. We analyzed the projection diagram with skewness to describe the variation of different gaze position. In skewness calculation, the pixel coordinate of eye ROI images has been normalized to avoid head moved back and forth makes the size of ROI changed. In horizontal direction, the error angle of our algorithm is 2.29°, maximum error angle is 4.8° and the resolution we defined is 7.5. Because our algorithm is inaccurate in vertical, we could only estimate gaze direction, but to estimate precise angle. The computational power of our algorithm is low, the average execution time of each frame is only 0.01652 s, only 24% of opponent.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHCI International 2018 – Posters’ Extended Abstracts - 20th International Conference, HCI International 2018, Proceedings
EditorsConstantine Stephanidis
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9783319922690
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018
Event20th International Conference on HCI, HCI International 2018 - Las Vegas, United States
Duration: 15 Jul 201820 Jul 2018

Publication series

NameCommunications in Computer and Information Science
ISSN (Print)1865-0929


Conference20th International Conference on HCI, HCI International 2018
CountryUnited States
CityLas Vegas


  • Gaze estimation
  • Integral projection
  • Skewness

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