NUPFA: A Novel Non-Uniform Power Formation Algorithm for BLE Mesh Networks

Chih Min Yu, Jian Ping Lin, Li Chun Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study presents a novel non-uniform power formation algorithm (NUPFA) for Bluetooth low energy (BLE) networks. With two stages, NUPFA constructs the scatternet in a distributed manner. In the first stage, the master and slave nodes discover each other using low level power to form an initial scatternet. In the second stage, each master alternatively scans or advertises using normal power to interconnect dual links among any two piconets until the whole scatternet is constructed. Using non-uniform power configuration, an energy-efficient scatternet is generated, since packet transmission power can be reduced in each piconet to minimize overall power consumption. With additional scatternet links, more routing paths can be utilized to reduce the path length and enhance network efficiency. Simulation results show that, compared with the existing CORP (Cluster-based On-demand Routing Protocol) and Bluetooth Mesh schemes, the NUPFA protocol achieves superior energy efficiency for packet transmission. Also, the dual links feature can effectively reduce packet latency, thereby improving the overall performance of BLE mesh networks.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Bluetooth
  • Bluetooth Low Energy
  • Energy efficiency
  • Energy Efficiency.
  • Mesh Network
  • Network topology
  • Personal area networks
  • Power Formation
  • Relays
  • Routing
  • Topology

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