A quantitative analysis of the nonuniform distribution of current density and nonuniform rate of electromigration has been carried out by measuring the movement of an array of diffusion markers. Tiny marker arrays were fabricated by focused ion beam on the polished surface of flip-chip solder joints near the anode to measure the electromigration rate. The marker velocity at the current-crowding region was found to be at least five times larger than at locations far from the region. Some of the markers in the low-current-density region possess negative velocities, indicating that backflow occurs during the electromigration. The backflow, in which the atomic flow is against the electron flow, is explained by a constant-volume model as well as the back-stress induced by electromigration.
- Pb-free solder