Ether-protecting functions at C-2 hydroxy groups have been found to play participating roles in glycosylations when the reactions are conducted in nitrile solvent mixtures. The participation mechanism is based on intramolecular interaction between the lone electron pair of the oxygen atom of the C-2 ether function and the nitrile molecule when they are positioned in a cis configuration. A 1,2-cis glycosyl oxazolinium intermediate is formed. This participation, in conjunction with the anomeric effect of the glycosyl donor, confers high 1,2-trans selectivities on glycosylations. Further application of this concept has led to efficient preparations of α-(1→5)-arabinan oligomers.
- neighboring-group effects
- nitrile solvents