A time-of-flight mass spectrometer with orthogonal acceleration and soft X-rays from synchrotron radiation were utilized to measure near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of carbon and oxygen in phenol and the corresponding ionic fragments following core excitation. The photon energies were in the range of 284-298 eV for the carbon K-edge and 529.5-554.5 eV for the oxygen K-edge. The total ion yield, ion intensity for each ionic fragment, and ion intensity ratio, defined as ion intensity divided by total ion yield, were measured as a function of photon energy. Possible mechanisms of dissociation are proposed and enhancements of specific products of dissociation are reported. In general, the enhancement of these specific products is small in the carbon K-edge region but is clear for some products at the oxygen K-edge. In particular, elimination of the H atom from the hydroxyl group was observed only at the oxygen K-edge. One remarkable result is that an excitation of a core-level electron of oxygen greatly enhanced the cleavage of specific C-C bonds.