Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function

Camilla A. Thorling, Darrell Crawford, Frank J. Burczynski, Xin Liu, Ian Liau, Michael S. Roberts*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number090901
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2014


  • drug transport
  • fibrosis
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • mitochondria
  • multiphoton microscopy
  • nanoparticles
  • second harmonic generation

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