Mother rotors and the mechanisms of D600-induced type 2 ventricular fibrillation

Tsu Juey Wu*, Shien-Fong Lin, Ali Baher, Zhilin Qu, Alan Garfinkel, James N. Weiss, Chih Tai Ting, Peng Sheng Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Background - Two types of ventricular fibrillation (VF) have been demonstrated in isolated rabbit hearts during D600 infusion. Type 1 VF is characterized by the presence of multiple, wandering wavelets, whereas type 2 VF shows local spatiotemporal periodicity. We hypothesized that a single mother rotor underlies type 2 VF. Methods and Results - One (protocol I) or 2 (protocol II) cameras were used to map the epicardial ventricular activations in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Multiple episodes of type 2 VF were induced in 22 hearts by high-concentration (≥2.5 mg/L) D600 (protocol I). During type 2 VF, a single spiral wave (n = 19) and/or an epicardial breakthrough pattern (n = 11) was present in 14 hearts. These spiral waves either slowly drifted or intermittently anchored on the papillary muscle (PM) of the left ventricle. Dominant-frequency (DF) analyses showed that the highest local DF was near the PM (12.5±1.1 Hz). There was an excellent correlation between the highest local DF of these spiral waves and breakthroughs (11.8±1.7 Hz) and the DF of simultaneously obtained global pseudo-ECG (11.2±1.8 Hz, r=0.97, P<0.0001) during type 2 VF. We also successfully reproduced the major features of type 2 VF by using the Luo-Rudy action-potential model in a simulated, 3-dimensional tissue slab, under conditions of reduced excitability and flat action-potential duration restitution. Conclusions - Either a stationary or a slowly drifting mother rotor can result in type 2 VF. Colocalization of the stationary mother rotors with the PM suggests the importance of underlying anatomic structures in mother rotor formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2110-2118
Number of pages9
Issue number15
StatePublished - 12 Oct 2004


  • Arrhythmia
  • Fibrillation
  • Mapping
  • Ventricles

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    Wu, T. J., Lin, S-F., Baher, A., Qu, Z., Garfinkel, A., Weiss, J. N., Ting, C. T., & Chen, P. S. (2004). Mother rotors and the mechanisms of D600-induced type 2 ventricular fibrillation. Circulation, 110(15), 2110-2118.