Although tremendous progress has been made in the diagnosis of melanoma, the identification of different stages of malignancy in a reliable way remains challenging. Current strategies rely on optical monitoring of the concentration and spatial distribution of specific biomarkers. State-of-the-art optical methods can be affected by background-color interference and autofluorescence. We overcame these shortcomings by employing scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to map the prognostic indicator tyrosinase (TyR) in non-metastatic and metastatic melanoma tissues by using soft-stylus microelectrodes. Electrochemical readout of the TyR distribution was enabled by adapting an immunochemical method. SECM can overcome the limitations of optical methods and opens unprecedented possibilities for improved diagnosis and understanding of the spatial distribution of TyR in different melanoma stages.
- scanning electrochemical microscopy
- soft probes
- tissue sections