Template wetting methods have been broadly applied to fabricate diverse one-dimensional polymer nanomaterials. The currently used template wetting methods, however, have shortcomings and disadvantages such as long processing times, thermal degradation, and difficulties in controlling the lengths. In this work, we develop a novel microwave-annealing-induced nanowetting (MAIN) method to fabricate one-dimensional polymer nanomaterials using porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Upon microwave annealing, the polymer chains are infiltrated into the nanopores of the AAO templates, and the morphologies of the polymer nanomaterials can be controlled by the annealing conditions. The growth rates of the polymer nanomaterials using the MAIN method are faster than those using the traditional thermal annealing method. This work not only provides a time-saving method to fabricate one-dimensional polymer nanomaterials with controlled morphologies, but also offers a better understanding of the effect of microwave annealing on the wetting behaviors of polymer melts.