Microstructure examination of copper wafer bonding

Kuan-Neng Chen*, Andy Fan, Rafael Reif

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


The microstructure morphologies and oxide distribution of copper bonded wafers were examined by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS). Cu wafers exhibit good bond properties when wafer contact occurs at 400°C/4000 mbar for 30 min, followed by an anneal at 400°C for 30 min in N2 ambient atmosphere. The distribution of different defects showed that the bonded layer became a homogeneous layer under these bonding conditions. The oxidation distribution in the bonded layer is uniform and sparse. Possible bonding mechanisms are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-335
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2001


  • Copper
  • EDS
  • Oxidation
  • TEM
  • Wafer bonding

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