The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and crystal phases of the intergranular praseodymium oxides in ZnO varistor ceramics was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. The ZnO grains were three-dimensionally separated from the intergranular praseodymium oxides. On the basis of microdiffraction analyses of the intergranular layer, the phase transformation from fcc-Pr6O11 into hcp-Pr2O3 was found when the sintering temperature increased from 1300° to 1350°C. The defect reaction equation and the decrease of donor concentration with increasing sintering temperature can verify the certainty of phase transition during the liquid-phase sintering observed by transmission elecron microscopy. Additionally, on the basis of the small variations of the breakdown voltage per grain boundary, the number of active grain boundaries is not a dominant factor for the donor concentration dependence on the sintering temperature.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of the American Ceramic Society|
|State||Published - Sep 1996|