In the present era of big data and the Internet of things (the interconnection of computing devices in the Internet infrastructure), the fabrication of mobile and other electronic devices by three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) is receiving wide attention. The concept of using 3D ICs to extend the limit of Moore's Law of two-dimensional ICs, by combining chip technology and packaging technology, has existed for more than 10 years. However, we still do not mass produce 3D IC devices due to low yield and reliability, as well as high cost. Most problems are caused by materials selection and integration at the small scale. This issue offers a review of 3D ICs and emphasizes the materials challenges of this new technology.