Mapping the antioxidant activity of apple peels with soft probe scanning electrochemical microscopy

Tzu-En Lin, Andreas Lesch*, Chi Lin Li, Hubert H. Girault

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We present a non-invasive electrochemical strategy for mapping the antioxidant (AO) activity of apple peels, which counterbalances oxidative stress caused by various external effectors. Soft carbon microelectrodes were used for soft probe scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) enabling the gentle and scratch-free contact mode scanning of rough and delicate apple peels in an electrolyte solution. The SECM feedback mode was applied using ferrocene methanol (FcMeOH) as redox mediator that gets electrochemically oxidized at the soft probe and diffuses towards the apple peel where it gets regenerated by certain AOs leading to a redox mediator recycling and increased current signal. The global AO activity in the apple peel including lenticels and regions with artificially degraded AOs were mapped using the soft microelectrodes. Finally, in an apple cross-section the higher and homogeneous AO concentration in the peel with a heterogeneously decaying AO gradient towards the apple inward was visualized, demonstrating the adequate micrometer resolution of the SECM probe and the possibility to get information of the interior AO activity of the apple.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-128
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2017


  • Antioxidants
  • Apple peel
  • Microelectrodes
  • Scanning electrochemical microscopy
  • Soft probes

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