Manipulate the Electronic and Magnetic States in NiCo 2 O 4 Films through Electric-Field-Induced Protonation at Elevated Temperature

Meng Wang, Xuelei Sui, Yujia Wang, Yung Hsiang Juan, Yingjie Lyu, Huining Peng, Tongtong Huang, Shengchun Shen, Chenguang Guo, Jianbing Zhang, Zhuolu Li, Hao Bo Li, Nianpeng Lu, Alpha T. N'Diaye, Elke Arenholz, Shuyun Zhou, Qing He, Ying-hao Chu, Wenhui Duan*, Pu Yu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Ionic-liquid-gating- (ILG-) induced proton evolution has emerged as a novel strategy to realize electron doping and manipulate the electronic and magnetic ground states in complex oxides. While the study of a wide range of systems (e.g., SrCoO 2.5 , VO 2 , WO 3 , etc.) has demonstrated important opportunities to incorporate protons through ILG, protonation remains a big challenge for many others. Furthermore, the mechanism of proton intercalation from the ionic liquid/solid interface to whole film has not yet been revealed. Here, with a model system of inverse spinel NiCo 2 O 4 , an increase in system temperature during ILG forms a single but effective method to efficiently achieve protonation. Moreover, the ILG induces a novel phase transformation in NiCo 2 O 4 from ferrimagnetic metallic into antiferromagnetic insulating with protonation at elevated temperatures. This study shows that environmental temperature is an efficient tuning knob to manipulate ILG-induced ionic evolution.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1900458
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number16
StatePublished - 19 Apr 2019


  • ionic liquid gating
  • phase transformation
  • protonation
  • spinel

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