Ionic-liquid-gating- (ILG-) induced proton evolution has emerged as a novel strategy to realize electron doping and manipulate the electronic and magnetic ground states in complex oxides. While the study of a wide range of systems (e.g., SrCoO 2.5 , VO 2 , WO 3 , etc.) has demonstrated important opportunities to incorporate protons through ILG, protonation remains a big challenge for many others. Furthermore, the mechanism of proton intercalation from the ionic liquid/solid interface to whole film has not yet been revealed. Here, with a model system of inverse spinel NiCo 2 O 4 , an increase in system temperature during ILG forms a single but effective method to efficiently achieve protonation. Moreover, the ILG induces a novel phase transformation in NiCo 2 O 4 from ferrimagnetic metallic into antiferromagnetic insulating with protonation at elevated temperatures. This study shows that environmental temperature is an efficient tuning knob to manipulate ILG-induced ionic evolution.
- ionic liquid gating
- phase transformation