Low-Voltage CMOS Rail-to-Rail V-I Converters

Chung-Chih Hung*, Changku Hwang, Mohammed Ismail, Kari Halonen, Veikko Porra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


This paper presents two CMOS low-voltage rail-to-rail voltage-to-current converters (V-I converter) which could be used as basic building blocks to construct low-voltage current-mode analog VLSI circuits. In each of the circuits, an N-type V-I converter cell is connected in parallel with its P-type counterpart to achieve common-mode rail-to-rail operation. A linear differential relationship of the N-type V-I converter, or its P-type complement, is obtained using a new class-AB linearization technique. In the first rail-to-rail V-I converter circuit, a constant transconductance is achieved through the use of two maximum-current selecting circuits and an output subtraction stage. In the second circuit, a constant transconductance value is obtained by manipulating the DC bias currents of N- and P-type V-I converter cells. Both of the circuits can operate from rail to rail with a power supply of 3V, or less depending on the VLSI technology and the DC bias current level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-274
Number of pages14
JournalAnalog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1997


  • Low voltage
  • OTA
  • Rail-to-rail
  • V-I converter
  • Voltage-to-current converter

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Low-Voltage CMOS Rail-to-Rail V-I Converters'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this