The interaction of biomolecules and solid-state nanomaterials at the nano-bio interfaces is a long-lasting research topic in nanotechnology. Historically, fundamental problems, such as the electron transfer, energy transfer, and plasmonic interaction at the bio-nano interfaces, have been intensively studied, and revolutionary technologies, such as molecular electronics, peptide chips, nanoplasmonic sensors, have been created. With the combined effort of molecular dynamics simulation and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, we studied the external electric field-induced conformation changes of dodecapeptide probes tethered to a nanostructured metallic surface. Through this study, we demonstrated a reversible manipulation of the biomolecule conformations as well as an in situ eletro-optical detection of the subnanometer conformational changes at the bio-nano interfaces. Based on the proof-of-concept established in this study, we further propose a novel nanophotonic peptide phosphorylation sensor for high-sensitive peptide kinase profiling. We have also demonstrated the same SERS nano-bio-chip can be used for environmental monitoring applications, such as detection of contaminants in drinking water at ultralow concentrates. The fabrication of this nanosensor is based on a single step, lithography-less nanomanufacturing process, which can produce hundreds of these chips in several minutes with nearly 100% yield and uniformity. Therefore, the demonstrated research can be readily translated into industrial mass productions.