Low-complexity conjugate gradient algorithm for array code acquisition

Hua Lung Yang*, Wen-Rong Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


An adaptive array code acquisition for direct-sequence/ code-division multiple access (DS/CDMA) systems was recently proposed to enhance the performance of the conventional correlator-based method. The scheme consists of an adaptive spatial and an adaptive temporal filter, and can simultaneously perform beamforming and code-delay estimation. Unfortunately, the scheme uses a least-mean-square (LMS) adaptive algorithm, and its convergence is slow. Although the recursive-least-squares (RLS) algorithm can be applied, the computational complexity will greatly increase. In this paper, we solve the dilemma with a low-complexity conjugate gradient (LCG) algorithm, which can be considered as a special case of a modified conjugate gradient (MCG) algorithm. Unlike the original conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm developed for adaptive applications, the proposed method, exploiting the special structure inherent in the input correlation matrix, requires a low computational-complexity. It can be shown that the computational complexity of the proposed method is on the same order of the LMS algorithm. However, the convergence rate is improved significantly. Simulation results show that the performance of adaptive array code acquisition with the proposed CG algorithm is comparable to that with the original CG algorithm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1193-1200
Number of pages8
JournalIEICE Transactions on Communications
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2007


  • Adaptive filtering
  • Antenna arrays
  • Code acquisition
  • Conjugate gradient algorithm
  • Synchronization, DS/CDMA

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