Many studies have shown the positive impact of serious gaming on learning outcomes, but few have explored the relationships between game immersion and science learning. Accordingly, this study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning by playing, as well as the dynamic process of game immersion experiences, and to further identify whether, and to what extent, immersion affects science learning through serious gaming by using the techniques of cluster analysis. A total of 63 seventh-grade students participated in the study, and a quasi-experimental research design was employed. The results demonstrated that the students gained a holistic understanding of the relevant scientific concepts because their performances on the scenario-based science assessment were significantly improved across serious gameplaying occasions, and the effect of learning was retained long term. Moreover, serious gaming provided students with the experience of immersion insofar as the students indicated a greater degree of immersion in the game over time. Furthermore, two core clusters presenting meaningful patterns, high gaming performance/high immersion and high science learning/low immersion, were revealed. Finally, various interpretations and implications of the obtained data are discussed.