The Internet has experienced tremendous expansion in the past several years. Demands for IP multimedia services are emerging. The thirdgeneration (3G) wireless networks aim to support mobile users with numerous Internet services. 3G standards organizations are developing IP multimedia subsystems (IMS) to achieve seamless integration between Internet and 3G networks. Moreover, the collaboration between IETF, 3GPP, and 3GPP2 is essential to the development of IMS for next-generation networks. This article first provides an overview of 3GPP and 3GPP2 IMS and illustrates the IMS requirements, architectures, and functional models. We then discuss potential scalability issues in IMS. This article provides guidance for constructing a robust and scalable IMS.