For InGaN/GaN based nanorod devices using a top-down etching process, the optical output power is affected by non-radiative recombination due to sidewall defects (which decrease light output efficiency) and the mitigated quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) due to strain relaxation (which increases internal quantum efficiency). Therefore, the exploration of low-temperature optical behaviors of nanorod light emitting diodes (LEDs) will help identify the correlation between these two factors. In this work, low-temperature electroluminescent (EL) spectra of InGaN/GaN nanorod arrays were explored and compared with those of planar LEDs. The nanorod LED exhibits a much higher optical output percentage increase when the temperature decreases. The increase is mainly attributed to the increased carriers in the quantum wells for radiative recombination. Also, due to a better spatial overlap of electrons and holes in the quantum wells, the increased number of carriers can be more efficiently recombined in the nanorod device. Next, while the nanorod array shows nearly constant peak energy in the EL spectra at various injection currents at the temperature of 300 K, a blue shift has been observed at 190 K. The results suggest that with less non-radiative recombination and thus more carriers in the quantum wells, carrier screening and band filling still prevail in the partially strain relaxed nanorods. Moreover, when the temperature drops to 77 K, the blue shift of both nanorod and planar devices disappears and the optical output power decreases since there are fewer carriers in the quantum wells for radiative recombination.