In vitro models of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT) are rare and do not usually show spiral reentry on the epicardium. We hypothesized that MVT is associated with the spiral wave in the endocardium and that this stable reentrant propagation is supported by a persistently elevated intracellular calcium (Cai) transient at the core of the spiral wave. We performed dual optical mapping of transmembrane potential (Vm) and Cai dynamics of the right ventricular (RV) endocardium in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 12). Among 64 induced arrhythmias, 55% were sustained MVT (>10 min). Eighty percent of MVT showed stationary spiral waves (>10 cycles, cycle length: 128 ± 14.6 ms) in the endocardial mapped region, anchoring to the anatomic discontinuities. No reentry activity was observed in the epicardium. During reentry, the amplitudes of Vm and Cai signals were higher in the periphery and gradually decreased toward the core. At the core, maximal Vm and Cai amplitudes were 42.95 ± 5.89% and 43.95 ± 9.46%, respectively, of the control (P < 0.001). However, the trough of the Vm and Ca i signals at the core were higher than those in the periphery, indicating persistent Vm and Cai elevations during reentry. BAPTA-AM, a calcium chelator, significantly reduced the maximal Ca i transient amplitude and prevented sustained MVT and spiral wave formation in the mapped region. These findings indicate that endocardial spiral waves often anchor to anatomic discontinuities causing stable MVT in normal rabbit ventricles. The spiral core is characterized by diminished Vm and Cai amplitudes and persistent Vm and Cai elevations during reentry.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology|
|State||Published - 1 Jul 2008|
- Endocardial mapping
- Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia