Interfacial reactions between high-Pb solders (Pb-10Sn, Pb-5Sn, and Pb-3Sn, in wt.%) and immersion Ag layer at 350 °C are investigated. Upon decreasing the Sn concentration from 10 wt.% to 5 wt.%, the reaction product formed at the solder/Ag interface changes from the Ag3Sn phase to the Ag 4Sn phase. When the Sn concentration reduces to only 3 wt.%, the reaction product is the Ag4Sn phase at the initial stage of reaction but transforms to the (Ag) phase dissolved with Sn at the later stage of reaction. Pb penetrates across the (Ag) phase via grain boundary and forms a continuous Pb-rich layer between the (Ag) phase and the bottom Cu layer. The correlation between the phase transformation and the solder composition is discussed based on the calculated Sn-Pb-Ag isothermal section.
- Liquid-solid reactions
- Metals and alloys