We present an integrated microfluidic system consisting of a label-free biosensor of a guided-mode resonance filter (GMRF) and a microfluidic channel with a micropost filter. The GMRF was fabricated through replica molding using an ultraviolet-curable polymer and a plastic substrate. An array of microposts (a diameter and height of 26.5 and 56 μm, respectively, and a spacing between 7.5 and 9.5 μm), fabricated on a silicon substrate through photolithography, was used as the filter. A double-sided tape was used to laminate the GMRF and a microfluidic chip such that the integrated device provides two functions: filtration of the cell debris and quantification of the in-cell protein concentration. By measuring the changes in the resonant wavelength from the GMRF, the detection of β-actin in an unprocessed lysed cell sample was demonstrated; the cell debris was separated using the micropost filter to prevent false measurement.