This paper evaluates the airline productivity change by applying a modified global Malmquist productivity index (GMPI) model, incorporating both CO2 emissions and flight delays. Statistical inference is also performed on the GMPI results using the bootstrapping method. Empirical research was conducted on 15 international airlines during 2011-2017. The obtained results showed that the productivity of all airlines had been fluctuating and experienced a slight increase over 2011–2017. Most of these 15 airlines made more progress in managing punctuality than CO2 emissions. High punctuality policy may not be the best choice for all airlines when considering financial constraints, while airlines in more liberalized aviation markets are more likely to improve productivity by reducing flight delays. Efficiency change and technological change were the major driving factors for the growth of airline productivity. European and US airlines benefitted more from superior technology, while most Asian and Oceanian airlines still benefitted from the advantage of efficiency. Based on the findings, specific management advice was given.
- Airline CO emissions
- Airline performance
- Flight delays
- Global malmquist productivity index