### Abstract

We study the instabilities, Landau and dynamical instabilities, that are two mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of superfluidity in Bose-Einstein condensates interacting with a one-dimensional optical lattice. An effective-mass Gross-Pitaevskii equation was used to calculate the excitation spectrum and the condensate density of Bose-Einstein condensates in a weak periodic potential. After the condensate velocities greater than the speed of sound, we observe a decreasing of the condensate density, which is the onset of Landau instability. The condensate is dissipated, but not completely, from colliding with the thermal atom cloud. For even higher velocities of the condensate, we find a fast decreasing of the condensate density until full removal of the condensate. The regime of totally removing of the condensate is happened at the inverse effective mass of the condensate becoming zero or negative, where the condensate is on the dynamical instability.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 219-229 |

Number of pages | 11 |

Journal | Chinese Journal of Physics |

Volume | 45 |

Issue number | 2 II |

State | Published - 1 Apr 2007 |

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## Cite this

*Chinese Journal of Physics*,

*45*(2 II), 219-229.