Inhibition of gold embrittlement in micro-joints for three-dimensional integrated circuits

W. L. Shih, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Chuang, M. S. Kuo, C. R. Kao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Soldering reactions in very confined spaces are becoming an increasingly important issue owing to their applications for micro-joints in three-dimensional integrated circuits. Gold embrittlement is becoming relevant again as soldering joints become smaller. In this study, the maximum allowable Au content in micro-joints is investigated, and it was determined to be 1.3 wt.%. Direct Cu doping in solder can prevent the formation of AuSn4. Nevertheless, direct Cu doping may not be effective if the Au concentration is too high. It is demonstrated that using Cu under bump metallization can completely inhibit the formation of AuSn4 and eliminate the risk of gold embrittlement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4262-4265
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2014


  • 3D IC
  • ENIG
  • gold embrittlement
  • intermetallic compounds
  • Micro-joints
  • soldering

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