Ion-exchange processes of a cationic dye (Rhodamine B; RhB) were studied for individual polymer particles (diameter of 16-20 μm) by laser trapping microspectroscopy and confocal fluorescence laser microspectroscopy. the absorbance of RhB at 565 nm adsorbed on a cation-exchange particle increased linearly with the concentration of RhB in the aqueous phase, while it was independent of the particle diameter. Fluorescence intensity profile measurements of RhB along the particle diameter by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy directly proved that ion exchange took place in the surface layer (∼2-μm thickness) of the particle in the initial stage (1 h). Diffusion of RhB in the particle was very slow, and ion exchange proceeded gradually to the inner volume in the order of days. The ion-exchange processes were analyzed on the basis of simulation of the time course of the concentration profile of RhB in the particle, and the diffusion coefficient of RhB was determined to be (2-4) × 10-11cm2·s-1.