This study develops an approach referred to as SA-MF using simulated annealing (SA) and a three-dimensional groundwater flow model (MODFLOW-2000) to determine the pumping source information, namely the pumping source location, the pumping rate and the pumping period. Eight scenarios, each with various cases for aquifers with homogeneous or heterogeneous conductivities, are used to test the applicability and accuracy of SA-MF in determining the pumping source information. The results show that at least five measured heads should be used to analyse the pumping source identification problem and at least three observation wells are required to effectively determine the pumping source information. The SA-MF gives good estimated results in both synthetic and real problems even if the measured heads contain measurement errors.
- Heuristic approach
- Inverse problem
- Pumping source identification
- Simulated annealing