We describe purification and characterization of an oligopeptide permease protein (Hly-OppA) from Vibrio furnissii that has multifaceted functions in solute binding, in in vitro hemolysis, in antibiotic resistance, and as a virulence factor in bacterial pathogenesis. The solute-binding function was revealed by N-terminal and internal peptide sequences of the purified protein and was confirmed by discernible effects on oligopeptide binding, by accumulation of fluorescent substrates, and by fluorescent substrate-antibiotic competition assay experiments. The purified protein exhibited host-specific in vitro hemolytic activity against various mammalian erythrocytes and apparent cytotoxicity in CHO-K1 cells. Recombinant Hly-OppA protein and an anti-Hly-OppA monoclonal antibody exhibited and neutralized the in vitro hemolytic activity, respectively, which further confirmed the hemolytic activity of the gene product. In addition, a V. furnissii hly-oppA knockout mutant caused less mortality than the wild-type strain when it was inoculated into BALB/c mice, indicating the virulence function of this protein. Finally, the in vitro hemolytic activity was also confirmed with homologous ATP-binding cassette-type transporter proteins from other Vibrio species.