p53 tumor suppressor is a transcription factor that functions, in part, through many of its downstream target genes. We have identified a p53-inducible gene by performing mRNA differential display on IW32 murine erythroleukemia cells containing a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant allele, tsp53 Val-135. Sequence analysis of the full-length cDNA revealed its identity as the mouse homologue of the human thiamine transporter 1 (THTR-1). Induction of the mouse THTR-1 (mTHTR-1) mRNA was detectable as early as 1 h at 32.5 °C; upon shifting back to 38.5 °C, mTHTR-1 transcript was rapidly degraded with a half-life of less than 2 h. Elevation of mTHTR-1 expression was found in DNA damage-induced normal mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, but not in p53-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that mTHTR-1 induction was p53-dependent. A region within the first intron of the mTHTR-1 gene bound to p53 and conferred the p53-mediated transactivation. Furthermore, increased thiamine transporter activities were found in cells overexpressing mTHTR-1 and under conditions of DNA damage or p53 activation. Our findings indicate that p53 may be involved in maintaining thiamine homeostasis through transactivation of THTR-1.