Solid-state white light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) show promising advantages of simple solution fabrication processes, low operation voltage, and compatibility with air-stable cathode metals, which are required for lighting applications. To date, white LECs based on ionic transition metal complexes (iTMCs) have shown higher device efficiencies than white LECs employing other types of materials. However, lower emission efficiencies of red iTMCs limit further improvement in device performance. As an alternative, efficient red CdZnSeS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots were integrated with a blue iTMC to form a hybrid white LEC in this work. By achieving good carrier balance in an appropriate device architecture, a peak external quantum efficiency and power efficiency of 11.2 % and 15.1 lm W−1, respectively, were reached. Such device efficiency is indeed higher than those of the reported white LECs based on host–guest iTMCs. Time- and voltage-dependent electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of the hybrid white LECs were studied by means of the temporal evolution of the emission-zone position extracted by fitting the simulated and measured EL spectra. The working principle of the hybrid white LECs was clarified, and the high device efficiency makes potential new white-emitting devices suitable for solid-state lighting technology possible.
- ionic transition metal complexes
- light-emitting electrochemical cells
- quantum dots