We demonstrate highly efficient pulse stretching in Er3+-doped femtosecond mode-locked fiber lasers by tailoring cavity dispersion using an intracavity short-pass edge filter. The cavity dispersion is preset at around zero to obtain the shortest pulsewidth. When the cutoff wavelength of the short-pass edge filter is thermo-optically tuned to overlap the constituting spectral components of mode-locked pulses, large negative waveguide dispersion is introduced by the steep cutoff slope and the total cavity dispersion is moved to normal dispersion regime to broaden the pulsewidth. The time-bandwidth product of the mode-locked pulse increases with the decreasing temperature at the optical liquid surrounding the short-pass edge filter. Pulse stretch ratio of 3.53 (623.8fs/176.8fs) can be efficiently achieved under a temperature variation of 4°C.