High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

Szu Han Ho, Ting Chang Chang, Ying Hsin Lu, Bin Wei Wang, Wen Hung Lo, Ching En Chen, Jyun Yu Tsai, Hua Mao Chen, Kuan Ju Liu, Tseung-Yuen Tseng, Osbert Cheng, Cheng Tung Huang, Tsai Fu Chen, Xi Xin Cao

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Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO 2/metal gate stacks. NT-Vhigh level characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of NT for extra contribution of Icp traps. NT is the number of traps, and Icp is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of Icp traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti xN1-x metal gate concentrations. Next, N T-Vhigh level characteristic curves with different falling times (tfalling time) and base level times (tbase level) show that extra contribution of Icp traps decrease with an increase in tfalling time. By fitting discharge formula for different t falling time, the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during tfalling time. This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of NT by charge pumping technique at tbase level reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps.

Original languageEnglish
Article number174506
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume114
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - 7 Nov 2013

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