High-k gate stacks for planar, scaled CMOS integrated circuits

H. R. Huff*, Tuo-Hung Hou, C. Lim, Y. Kim, J. Barnett, G. Bersuker, G. A. Brown, C. D. Young, P. M. Zeitzoff, J. Gutt, P. Lysaght, M. I. Gardner, R. W. Murto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


The gate stack should be regarded as a multi-element interfacial layered structure wherein the high-k gate dielectric and gate electrodes (and their corresponding interfaces) must be successfully comprehended. The surface clean and subsequent surface conditioning prior to high-k deposition as well as post-deposition annealing parameters significantly impact the equivalent oxide thickness and leakage current as well as the traditional parameters such as threshold voltage, saturation current, transconductance, and sub-threshold swing. The control of both the fixed electrical charges and charge traps incorporated at the various interfaces and within the high-k bulk film is of paramount importance to achieve the requisite transistor characteristics and, in particular, the effective carrier mobility. Interactive effects within the gate stack process modules and the subsequent integrated circuit fabrication process require the utmost attention to achieve the desired IC performance characteristics and help facilitate the continuance of Moore's Law towards the 10-nm physical gate length regime.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-167
Number of pages16
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Issue number2-4
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2003


  • Electron mobility
  • HfO
  • High-k
  • Moore's Law
  • Process integration

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