The enhanced light extraction and reduced forward voltage of a GaN-based vertical injection light emitting diode (VI-LED) with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorod array were demonstrated. The ITO nanorod array was fabricated by the glancing-angle deposition method. The employment of ITO nanostructures amplified not only the broadband transmission but also the current spreading. The optical output power of GaN-based VI-LEDs with ITO nanorods was enhanced by 50% compared with a conventional VI-LED at an injection current of 350 mA. The extraction efficiency was dramatically raised from 62 to 93% by the surface ITO nanorods. We also optimized the extraction efficiency of the GaN-based VI-LED with an ITO nanorod array by tuning the thickness of the n-GaN top layer via three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) simulation.