Graphene oxide based nanocarrier combined with a pH-sensitive tracer: A vehicle for concurrent pH sensing and pH-responsive oligonucleotide delivery

Chia Jung Hsieh, Yu Cheng Chen, Pei Ying Hsieh, Shi Rong Liu, Shu-Pao Wu, You-Zung Hsieh, Hsin-Yun Hsu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

We chemically tuned the oxidation status of graphene oxide (GO) and constructed a GO-based nanoplatform combined with a pH-sensitive fluorescence tracer that is designed for both pH sensing and pH-responsive drug delivery. A series of GOs oxidized to distinct degrees were examined to optimize the adsorption of the model drug, poly dT30. We determined that highly oxidized GO was a superior drug-carrier candidate in vitro when compared to GOs oxidized to lesser degrees. In the cell experiment, the synthesized pH-sensitive rhodamine dye was first applied to monitor cellular pH; under acidic conditions, protonated rhodamine fluoresces at 588 nm (λex = 561 nm). When the dT30-GO nanocarrier was introduced into cells, a rhodamine-triggered competition reaction occurred, and this led to the release of the oligonucleotides and the quenching of rhodamine fluorescence by GO. Our results indicate high drug loading (FAM-dT30/GO = 25/50 μg/mL) and rapid cellular uptake (<0.5 h) of the nanocarrier which can potentially be used for targeted RNAi delivery to the acidic milieu of tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11467-11475
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume7
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 Jun 2015

Keywords

  • graphene oxide
  • oligonucleotide delivery
  • pH-responsive drug delivery
  • pH-sensitive rhodamine
  • theranostics

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