Graphene-on-metal (G/M) heterostructures have gained considerable attention in recent years owing to their outstanding optical and electrical properties. In this study, the polarity of graphene doping to different metallic materials underneath graphene is analyzed for applications in surface-charge modifications. Kelvin probe force microscopy clearly reveals the charge-transfer effects of plasmonic zirconium nitride (ZrN) and gold (Au) on the formation of G/M heterostructures. In addition, both ZrN and Au nanogroove arrays are fabricated by focused ion beam to generate surface plasmon resonances. The charge-transfer effects influence the effective permittivities of ZrN and Au surfaces such that opposite plasmonic resonance shifts are demonstrated for the ZrN and Au nanogroove arrays. Our results show that the choice of metallic material is important for achieving a desired charge transfer in the loading of graphene onto metallic materials.
- charge transfer
- Kelvin probe force microscopy
- plasmonic materials
- Raman spectroscopy