Geometry-Based Camera Calibration Using Closed-Form Solution of Principal Line

Jen-Hui Chuang*, Chih Hui Ho, Ardian Umam, Hsin Yi Chen, Jenq Neng Hwang, Tai An Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Camera calibration is a crucial prerequisite in many applications of computer vision. In this paper, a new geometry-based camera calibration technique is proposed, which resolves two main issues associated with the widely used Zhang's method: (i) the lack of guidelines to avoid outliers in the computation and (ii) the assumption of fixed camera focal length. The proposed approach is based on the closed-form solution of principal lines with their intersection being the principal point while each principal line can concisely represent relative orientation/position (up to one degree of freedom for both) between a special pair of coordinate systems of image plane and calibration pattern. With such analytically tractable image features, computations associated with the calibration are greatly simplified, while the guidelines in (i) can be established intuitively. Experimental results for synthetic and real data show that the proposed approach does compare favorably with Zhang's method, in terms of correctness, robustness, and flexibility, and addresses issues (i) and (ii) satisfactorily.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9318550
Pages (from-to)2599-2610
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Camera calibration
  • closed-form solution
  • geometry-based method
  • non-fixed focal length
  • outlier removal
  • principal lines
  • principal point
  • vanishing point

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