Within three functionals (TD-B3LYP, TD-BHandHLYP, and TD-CAM-B3LYP) in combination with four basis sets (3-21g, 6-31g, 6-31g(d), and cc-pvdz), global switching (GS) trajectory surface hopping molecular dynamics has been performed for cis-to-trans azobenzene photoisomerization up to the S1(nπ*) excitation. Although all the combinations show artificial double-cone structure of conical intersection between ground and first excited states, simulated quantum yields and lifetimes are in good agreement with one another; 0.6 (±5%) and 40.5 fs (±10%) by TD-B3LYP, 0.5 (±10%) and 35.5 fs (±4%) by TD-BHandHLYP, and 0.44 (±9%) and 35.2 fs (±10%) by TD-CAM-B3LYP. By analyzing distributions of excited-state population decays, hopping spots, and typical trajectories with performance of 12 functional/basis set combinations, it has been concluded that functional dependence for given basis set is slightly more sensitive than basis set dependence for given functional. The present GS on-the-fly time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) trajectory surface hopping simulation can provide practical benchmark guidelines for conical intersection driven excited-state molecular dynamics simulation involving in large complex system within ordinary TDDFT framework.
- conical intersections
- global switching
- molecular dynamics simulation
- on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping
- time-dependent density functional theory