Frequency-independent equivalent-circuit model for on-chip spiral inductors

Yu Cao*, Robert A. Groves, Xuejue Huang, Noah D. Zamdmer, Jean Olivier Plouchart, Richard A. Wachnik, Tsu Jae King, Chen-Ming Hu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

306 Scopus citations


A wide-band physical and scalable 2-Π equivalent circuit model for on-chip spiral inductors is developed. Based on physical derivation and circuit theory, closed-form formulas are generated to calculate the RLC circuit elements directly from the inductor layout. The 2-Π model accurately captures R(f) and L(/) characteristics beyond the self-resonant frequency. Using frequency-independent RLC elements, this new model is fully compatible with both ac and transient analysis. Verification with measurement data from a SiGe process demonstrates accurate performance prediction and excellent scalability for a wide range of inductor configurations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-426
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2003


  • 2-Π
  • Circuit model
  • Current-crowding effect
  • Frequency dependence
  • Quality factor
  • Spiral inductor

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    Cao, Y., Groves, R. A., Huang, X., Zamdmer, N. D., Plouchart, J. O., Wachnik, R. A., King, T. J., & Hu, C-M. (2003). Frequency-independent equivalent-circuit model for on-chip spiral inductors. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 38(3), 419-426.