Stainless steel (316L) and 8 mol pct Y2O3-stabilized zirconia (8Y-ZrO2) were bonded using a Ti-Ni-Ti multilayer at 1173 K (900 °C) for 1 h. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy specimens were prepared by an innovative focused ion beam plus lift-out technique. In addition to acicular α-Ti, the dissolution of Fe, Cr, and Ni diffusing outwards from 316L into β-Ti led to the precipitation of the omega (ω) phase with different variants in the residual Ti foil between 316L and Ni. The ω-phase was not found in the residual Ti foil between Ni and 8Y-ZrO2, while Ti2Ni precipitates were precipitated in some α-Ti grains owing to the exclusion of Ni from the β-Ti.
- omega phase
- stainless steels
- transmission electron microscopy