Forecasting energy consumption using a grey model improved by incorporating genetic programming

Yi Shian Lee*, Lee-Ing Tong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

196 Scopus citations


Energy consumption is an important economic index, which reflects the industrial development of a city or a country. Forecasting energy consumption by conventional statistical methods usually requires the making of assumptions such as the normal distribution of energy consumption data or on a large sample size. However, the data collected on energy consumption are often very few or non-normal. Since a grey forecasting model, based on grey theory, can be constructed for at least four data points or ambiguity data, it can be adopted to forecast energy consumption. In some cases, however, a grey forecasting model may yield large forecasting errors. To minimize such errors, this study develops an improved grey forecasting model, which combines residual modification with genetic programming sign estimation. Finally, a real case of Chinese energy consumption is considered to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed forecasting model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-152
Number of pages6
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2011


  • Energy consumption
  • Genetic programming
  • Grey forecasting model

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