Sodium borohydride reduction reactions on 4-X-adamantan-2-ones (where X=ethyleneketal 11, ethylenethioketal 12, and methylene 15) were studied, which gave Z-alcohols 16 and 17 (from en-face attack) as the predominant products for ketones 11 and 12, but gave 1:1 mixture of Z- and E-18 alcohols for ketone 15. The en/zu face selectivity of 15 in sodium borohydride reduction was enhanced to 32/68 in β-CD solution. Both 1,3-dipolar addition and dichlorocarbene addition reactions on 4-ethyleneketal-2-methyleneadamantane 13 underwent again predominant en-face attack to give products in an E/Z ratio of >99:1 and 92:8, respectively. The exceptional high zu-face selectivity on the dichlorocarbene addition reaction of 15 may be explained by a temporal complexation between the carbene and the C 4-oxo group. In the epoxidation reaction of 13 and 15 the zu-face attack products were favored despite their steric congestions suggesting that hydrogen bonding interaction between the peroxide reagent and the C 4-oxo or 4-ethyleneketal is involved. Graphical Abstract.
- 2,4-Disubstituted adamantanes
- Face selectivity
- Inclusion complex
- Neighboring group participation