We reported that highly (111)-oriented nanotwinned gold can be fabricated by periodical-reverse electroplating. The as-deposited films are shown to have a strong (111) preferred orientation, increasing with the reverse current time. The ratios of I(111)/I(220) and I(111)/I(200) in X-ray diffraction signals indicates a strong (111) preferred orientation. Using the advantage of the fast surface diffusion of (111) plane compared to the other planes of gold, we performed direct bonding with different thicknesses. Grain growth was observed over two films' interfaces to eliminate the bonding interface, when annealed at 250 °C for 1 h. Shear tests were performed to gain insight on the bonding quality. All the chips failed at either the silicon substrate or substrate-adhesion layer, showing possible higher strength than the tested maximum, 40.8 MPa.
- Preferred orientation